Typhoid vaccine side effects, before we go to cover this topic, first of all, it is necessary to know, what typhoid is.
What Is Typhoid?
Typhoid is an infection of the gastrointestinal tract with an organism known as Salmonella typhi, a member of the same family of bacteria that cause many cases of food poisoning.
The disease is most likely to occur in areas with impure water supplies and poor sewage facilities, particularly in developing countries such as India, Nigeria, and Mexico.
Some people who have been infected with the typhoid bacteria become chronic carriers of the disease, experiencing no symptoms but excreting the organisms and passing them on to others.
The disease is most common among people who are malnourished or who have other illnesses, possibly because these conditions reduce the bacteria that normally inhabit the stomach, and which seem to provide some protection against typhoid.
There are also a lot of typhoid vaccine side effects.
Travelers should always be aware that the seepage of sewage into wells and surface water is a constant danger in developing countries.
A fever that gradually rises over several days.
Headaches and muscle aches.
Diarrhea that may range from mild (2 to 3 loose bowel movements daily) to severe (watery bowel movements every 10 to 15 minutes).
Enlarged liver and spleen.
Rose colored spots on chest and abdomen.
What Causes Typhoid And What Are The Typhoid vaccine side effects?
The direct cause is Salmonella typhi bacteria. These are found mainly in the feces of infected humans, which can contaminate food, water, or milk, especially in areas where sewage is not controlled properly.
Infected people who fail to wash their hands carefully can transmit the disease, particularly if they prepare food. Flies that land on infected faeces and then on food may also transmit the disease. Thorough cooking or boiling, but not freezing, can kill the bacteria.
How Is Typhoid Diagnosed And Treated?
To reach a definitive diagnosis, laboratory cultures of blood, stool and urine samples must be made. If S. typhi bacteria grow in
Color dyed Salmonella typhi bacteria, magnified 24,000 times. the culture, typhoid is clearly present. The first signs appear at any time 3 to 60 days after exposure to the bacteria, usually in a 7 to 21 day incubation period. The disease comes on gradually, often beginning with chills, malaise, headache, backache, loss of appetite and constipation. The abdomen feels sore and tender.
Fever develops, gradually increasing over a period of 7 to 10 days. It remains at 38.8 to 40 °C, for another 10 days or so and then slowly falls by the end of the fourth week. Rose colored spots may appear on the abdomen and chest approximately a week after the onset of illness.
The spots disappear in a few days. Diarrhea occurs later in the course of the disease and will continue to worsen, if untreated. With prompt medical attention, typhoid is usually curable within 2 to 3 weeks. Treatment includes bed rest, sometimes in hospital, and the administration of antibiotics.
Diarrhea is sometimes severe, but can usually be controlled with a clear liquid diet. Severely ill patients may need to be given corticosteroid drugs to increase their chance of survival.
The bacteria can cause severe swelling of the lymphatic tissues in the intestine. In a few cases, this swelling leads to profuse bleeding or even intestinal rupture, which may require a transfusion or surgery.
What Can I Do Myself?
Even if you are not hospitalized, you should be isolated and use either a bedside commode or a separate toilet. Wear disposable gloves when cleaning the lavatory or disposing of stools.
A heating pad or hot water bottle helps relieve abdominal cramps with diarrhea. Take lukewarm sponge baths and paracetamol to bring down fever but avoid aspirin since this medication may further irritate the gastrointestinal tract.
When Should I See My Doctor?
If you have symptoms of typhoid, see your doctor immediately.
What Will The Doctor Do?
The doctor will take samples of blood, urine, and faeces to grow cultures. If typhoid is suspected, antibiotic treatment, usually with oral chloramphenicol, may begin immediately rather than after laboratory results are available. The laboratory cultures also help to rule out any other infections.
Once illness clears up, the doctor will continue to carry out regular tests to make sure all traces of bacteria have left the system. About 3% of people who have had typhoid continue to harbor bacteria in the gallbladder for over a year after infection.
These people, known as chronic carriers, require prolonged antibiotic treatment to eradicate the infection completely. If a carrier also has the gall-bladder disease, surgical removal of this organ will be generally recommended.
Is Typhoid Dangerous?
Before the use of antibiotics, the disease was fatal in about 12% of cases. If not treated quickly, it can still occasionally prove fatal due to peritonitis from rupture of the intestine.
What Can I Do To Avoid Typhoid and How I Can Safe from Typhoid Vaccine Side Effects
If you travel in developing countries, you should be vaccinated against typhoid. Evert after vaccination, only drink purified or boiled water in any area where you suspect a substandard water supply. Do not use ice unless it is made with boiled or bottled water, and do not eat raw, unpeeled fruit and vegetables.